(Tox quiz #2) - June 2004
American College of Emergency Physicians Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
c. Iron is one of the most common ingestions in children. It usually results from ingestion of prenatal vitamins. There are four phases to iron poisoning. Phase I- Results from direct GI mucosal injury and last about 6 hours. Patients have vomiting, diarrhea and possible shock from the GI losses. Phase II- 6-24 hours- child might appear relatively well and can go on to full recovery or Phase III- cyanosis, and severe metabolic acidosis due to hepatocellular injury. This patient presented with dehydration and circulatory compromise. The treatment includes IV hydration, whole bowel irrigation, abdominal radiographs and intravenous deferoxamine at 15 mg/kg/hr. Fleisher, Ludwig. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2000; pg 914-917.
b. This patient has signs and symptoms of lithium toxicity. The distinction that must be made is whether this represents an "acute on chronic" ingestion or if this is purely an acute ingestion. Single acute ingestions present with gastrointestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea. Neurologic manifestations include tremors, progressing to hyperreflexia and agitation. "Acute on chronic" ingestions are difficult to diagnosis because these patients usually have both acute and chronic symptoms. The significant complication in these patients is renal toxicity and it is important to obtain 2 lithium levels to determine if hemodialysis is necessary. This patient had "acute on chronic" toxicity because he was on chronic lithium therapy for his bipolar disorder and subsequently acutely overdosed. Goldfrank. Toxicologic Emergencies. 1998; pg 967-973
b. This patient has hydrocarbon ingestion from kerosene ingestion. The hydrocarbons are divided into three categories: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, and the toxic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons cause clinical toxicity when aspirated, and the mainstay of treatment is to prevent emesis or reflux. If the child is symptomatic, as our patient is, a CXR should be obtained, with a repeat in 4-6 hours. If a patient has an abnormal CXR, or persistent respiratory symptoms, admission is required. Pneumonitis usually occurs 12-24 hours post ingestion, so detailed instructions should be given to parents of warning signs of respiratory compromise. Fleisher, Ludwig. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2000; pg. 912- 914.
a. The sulfonylureas can induce significant hypoglycemia and the onset of hypoglycemia can be delayed for 16-24 hours. Activated charcoal is indicated as well as 24-hour observation in the hospital. Fleisher, Ludwig. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2000; pg. 920.
|Neuroleptics (dystonic rxn)||D. Benztropin|
|Isoniazid||C. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Warfarin||E. Vitamin K|
a, b, d. Multiple dose charcoal can be used with antimalarials, aminophylline (theophylline), barbiturates (phenobarbital), beta- blockers, carbamazepine and dapsone. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2001; 3: Number 8.
a. This patient ingested mothballs. Mothballs are currently made with naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene. Naphthalene is more toxic than paradichlorobenzene. It causes fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea 24-48 hours after ingestion. Patients with G6PD deficiency will get severe hemolysis. A quick way to distinguish paradichlorobenzene from naphthalene is by x-ray. Paradichlorobenzene mothballs are densely radioopaque, and naphthalene mothballs are faintly radioopaque. Goldfrank. Toxicologic Emergencies. 1998. 1378-1381.
f. All the choices are correct. Woolf AD, Wenger T, Smith TW, et al. The use of digoxin-specific Fab fragments for severe digitalis intoxication in children. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1739-1744.
b. This patient suffers from ethylene glycol ingestion. The metabolites of ethylene glycol, including glycolaldehyde, glycolic acid and oxalate are toxic and result in severe metabolic acidosis. There are three stages of toxicity. The first stage causes CNS manifestations, metabolic acidosis, hypertension, hypocalcemia, and leukocytosis. The second stage includes coma and cardiopulmonary compromise. The third stage occurs at 24-72 hours and includes renal failure. Urinalysis usually reveals oxalate crystals. In the case of antifreeze ingestion, the urine will fluoresce under Woods' lamp examination. Fleisher, Ludwig. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2000; 903-904.
Oleander- effects similar to cardiac glycosides and digoxin toxicity.
Jimsonweed- anticholinergic effects.
Dumbcane- causes local (not systemic) toxicity due to the insoluble calcium oxalate crystals.
Ingestion can cause severe oral pain due to mucosal irritation.
African Violet- nontoxic.
Gardenia - nontoxic
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